The Prince of Wales also received birthday wishes from Prince William and Kate Middleton.
The Queen shared a sweet black-and-white throwback from April 1949, which shows Charles as a baby on his mother's lap. The photograph was taken at Buckingham Palace.
"Wishing The Prince of Wales a very happy birthday today!" the caption reads. The post also includes a most recent photo of Charles and Queen Elizabeth sitting next to each other and laughing.
Prince William and Kate Middleton also posted a photo of Charles on their official Instagram account.
"Wishing a very Happy Birthday to His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales! 🎂," they wrote.
Charles also thanked everyone for their sweet birthday messages on his Clarence House account, writing, "Thank you for all the well wishes on The Prince of Wales’s 72nd Birthday! 🎉."
Earlier this year, Charles tested positive for COVID-19. The British royal contracted the disease in late March, but only experienced "mild symptoms." In a June interview, he said that having had COVID-19 inspired him to be an outspoken advocate of ways to help make sure the world doesn't experience another pandemic.
"Yes, it makes me even more determined to push and shove and shout and prod, if you see what I mean. Whatever I can do behind the scenes sometimes," he told Sky News before adding of his own experience with coronavirus, "But yes, but I suppose it did, partly, and I was lucky in my case. I got away with it quite lightly."
Charles' life, as well as his family's, will continue to be told in the fourth season of The Crown, out Sunday on Netflix. ET spoke with Josh O'Connor about playing Charles and the hardships that he endured growing up as a royal.
Watch the interview below to hear what he shared.